This paper presents a study to investigate the effects of perception and marketing expenditures as well as financial and non-financial promotions on brand equity. The proposed study of this paper prepares a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among regular customers of three types of Shampoo in city of Tehran, Iran. The implementation of structural equation modeling for the proposed study of this paper has been accomplished based on LISREL software. The results of the survey on testing various hypotheses indicate that perception on marketing expenditure, financial as well as non-financial promotion and word of mouth advertisement influence positively on brand awareness and negatively on non-financial promotions (?=0.01). In addition, brand awareness influences positively on perception quality (?=0.01). Brand awareness as well as brand associate also influence on brand loyalty (?=0.01).
This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of brand experience, trust, perception image and brand satisfaction on creating customer loyalty on Iranian laptop market. The proposed study of this paper prepares a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some university students in province of Qazvin, Iran. The implementation of structural equation modeling for the proposed study of this paper has been accomplished based on LISREL software. Cronbach alphas for experience, satisfaction, loyalty, trust and perception from brand are calculated as 0.71, 0.83, 0.76, 0.69 and 0.86, respectively and they validate the overall questionnaire. The results of the survey on testing various hypotheses indicate that brand experience has positive and meaningful relationship with brand satisfaction, trust, perception image and loyalty. In addition, satisfaction, perception image and trust have positive meaningful with brand loyalty.
In some decades, capitalism countries have suffered from financial crises and the financial crises have created economic recession started from the country of origin and distributed to other counties. The purpose of this paper is to study the global financial crisis effects on the stock price as well as operating profit of some listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange(TSE). This research shows the difference between operating profit and the price of the products of the firms before and after the global financial crisis. The aim of this research is to study the effects of the global financial crisis on 133 TSE firms over the period 2004-2011 by considering two periods: Before/after crisis, i.e. 2004-2008 and 2008-2011. The results of testing different hypotheses show that there was a significant difference between the operating profit and the stock price of the firms before and after the global financial crisis on the different industries of the Iranian companies.
Replacement in organization’s employees can results in knowledge loss and turnover faces a serious problem in knowledge based organizations such as knowledge based sectors of governmental organizations. The increases in sizes of some governmental organizations in recent years have increased their structural and contextual dimensions. One of the biggest problems in governmental organizations is employee turnover, which could result to knowledge loss. By using knowledge management it is possible to decrease this phenomenon. This survey identifies the effective factors in implementation of knowledge management system as a solution for preventing knowledge loss. By far this study is the first of its kind in the context of information technology sectors of governmental organizations of ARAK Province of Iran.
Earnings management via discretionary accruals is a manager's instrument for changing stock holders’ expectations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of discretionary accruals in the earnings management of Iranian firms. There are two hypotheses associated with this study on the relationship between income smoothness and discretionary accruals and the proposed study is implemented on selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange. The result of the first hypothesis indicates the relationship between earnings smoothness and discretionary accruals variables. It means that discretionary accruals (DA) leads to the converse relationship among discretionary accruals variation and current and future cash flow. The result of the second hypothesis indicates that the firms with high variation in Iran utilize more discretionary accruals compared with the firms with lower variation.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) has become a necessary in many organizations and many business units have been trying to emerge into an integrated system. There are many advantages on having an efficient ERP but many corporations fail to reach a full operational ERP for many reasons. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing ERP implementation in one of the biggest Iranian automakers named Iran Khodro. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 46 questions, distributes it among some managers in this firm. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.788 and 1677.307, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived eight factors including intelligence information, customer comfort, structure oriented, resource management, process oriented, customer oriented, flexible structure and knowledge management.
A healthy and good family condition is often involved with other factors such as work conditions. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the effects of the quality of work life on quality of family life. The study uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among all 35 full time employees of a prison in province of Semnan, Iran. Cronbach alphas for quality of work life and family life are 0.967 and 0.840, respectively. In our survey, quality of work life consists of eight components including fair and sufficient payment, safe and healthy work conditions, human development capabilities, growth and secure opportunities, social integration, rule of law, general atmosphere of work life and social dependence of work life. The survey has used Pearson correlation ratios as well as stepwise regression analysis and the results have confirmed that having safe and healthy work conditions strongly influences quality of family life.
Researchers and scholars of management and behavioral sciences have tried to determine effective factors, which influence on efficiency and effectiveness in order to increase organization performance and they have tried to identify factors, which create job stress. In this research, we investigate the effect of job stress on job performance through emotional, organizational and moral intelligence. The study is a descriptive-analytic one, which is based on correlation, uses survey method to gather data and they are analyzed using structural equation modeling. The population of this research includes all the personnel of Registry Organization in Arak city. The results suggest that job stress influences on job performance through organizational intelligence and moral intelligence, but job stress does not influence on job performance through emotional intelligence. Regarding research hypotheses, results and findings after analyzing obtained data suggest that job stress influences on emotional, organizational and moral intelligence, but job stress does not influence on job performance. In addition, the results show that organizational and moral intelligence influence on job performance but emotional intelligence does not influence on job performance.
Building a famous brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. A good brand name plays an important role on increasing word of mouth advertisement, the number of loyal customers and repurchase habits. However, in order to build a good brand, we need to create sustainable brand identification and to do this we need to determine influential factors. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing brand identification. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 23 questions, distributes it among 400 people who purchase regularly from hyperstar and collects 400 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.735. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.784 and 2300.022, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived five factors including sense of brand, brand community, trust to brand, value of brand and personality of brand.
Nowadays, it is widely accepted that knowledge is the primary source of adding more value to organizations and business units. Customer relationship management (CRM), on the other hand is the main bridge for building a connection between management team and users and a good CRM also contributes to firms in terms of customer retention and getting more market share through word of mouth advertisement. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find the effect of knowledge on CRM in one of Iranian banks. The proposed study selects a sample of 384 randomly selected people and distributes a questionnaire among them. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey have been well above 0.70, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results have confirmed that knowledge influences CRM positively in terms of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and trust.