During the past few years, there have been some changes on traditional training methodologies in the world, specially, in elementary schools. Many schools have decided to perform their assessments in elementary schools based on qualitative methods compared with traditional quantitative techniques. This paper performs an empirical investigation to find out whether the new evaluation technique has been able to improve student teacher’s cognitive abilities and skills on evaluation of academic achievement practices. These student-teacher people taught at elementary schools while they also were studying at university. There are two types of questionnaires: The first one measures cognitive capabilities in four categories including levels of learning and educational objectives, designing paper and pencil test, functional test design and analysis and interpretation of results. The second test is associated with measuring functional skills in the evaluation of academic progress. The information were analyzed based on t-student test as well as two-way analysis of variance. The result of t-statistics was significant only for the last item, analysis and interpretation. In addition, the results of ANOVA test have indicated that there were some differences on cognitive capabilities between two methods of assessments but gender did not make any meaningful difference on functional skills.
During the past two decades, tourism industry has become popular among many researchers in developing countries. Tourism is able to attract substantial amount of investment to some areas where many investors are normally unwilling to invest in. This paper, presents important factors influencing market orientation in tourism industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 267 experts who are involved in tourism industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.873, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of market oriented, limiting rules and regulations, strategic competition, marketing planning culture, financial figures and top management.
Management is often considered as collaboration with others and this requires knowing about employers & apos; behavior and the factors influencing their behaviors to motivate them for obtaining some predicted aims. This paper presents a study to detect important factors influencing motivation of some employees who work for a public offices in city of Kashan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 160 randomly selected participants. The questions are divided into two groups of management performance and motivational factors. To evaluate the effect of demographic factors on the quality of respondents & apos; statements, a rating analysis based on Kruskal–Wallis test is used. To measure the effective vote, the motivation levels are divided into three groups of highly motivated, motivated and not motivated and they are analyzed based on rating mean variance with freedman scale. The results indicate that interesting job, job security, good salary and benefits and promotions, etc. are important factors to impact on the employers & apos; motivation. For the newly – employed personal, job security is the most important motivation factor and for old – established employees, job attractive and sense of being considered is the most effective factor.
Nowadays, it is impossible for retailers to establish a competitive and successful store in the marketplace through making a distinction in the outer facades of their stores, altering the pricing system, and diversifying the products offered in the store, due to the intense competition emerged in retailing markets. This leads the retailing markets to a new concept of marketplace, which is called “teaser retailing”. In this research, we first explain some related variables such as emotional and social stimulants, emotional-perceptual indicators, price of product, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. Then we investigate the impact of emotional and social stimulants and price of products on emotional-perceptual indicators as well as the relationship between emotional-perceptual indicators and customer satisfaction, and finally the relationship between customer satisfaction and his/her loyalty. The first hypothesis was associated with the effect of the store emotional stimulants on emotional-perceptual indicators and it was not confirmed. After investigation of the second hypothesis, it was cleared that the store social stimulants affects the buyer & apos; s emotional-perceptual indicators in purchasing point. On the other hand, the third hypothesis indicated that price of products affects the buyer & apos; s emotional-perceptual indicators in purchasing point. The fourth hypothesis indicated that emotional-perceptual indicators affect the customer satisfaction, and finally the fifth one indicated that the customer satisfaction leads to his/her loyalty.
This paper presents a social work study to find out why some Iranian women are interested in reading Persian novels in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed it among 150 women who lived in city of Tehran, Iran during the year 2009. All participants were interviewed carefully in order to make sure that they were able to understand all questions very completely. The results of survey have indicated that there was a meaningful relationship between women’s leisure time and reading Persian novels. There are some positive relationships between demanding equal opportunity with men and reading novels. The women who believe the idea of Equality of Men and Women read more novels. In our study, the more women were interested in reading Persian novels, the less they were interested in becoming familiar with social issues. In addition, the more women were interested in reading Persian novels, the more they believed the study could improve their social skills. Those women who believed in women as hero were more interested in reading novels. Nevertheless, highly educated women were not very much interested in reading novels. Finally, as women were aging, they were more interested in reading Persian novels.
This paper presents an empirical study on the effects of various factors on firm value including capital structure, firm size, asset growth, etc. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2010. In our study, all firms maintained the same fiscal calendar and there were active during the period of study. The results of our study indicate that there was a meaningful relationship between capital structure and firm value. In addition, there was a meaningful relationship between asset growth and increase on firm value. However, our study did not show any meaningful relationship between firms’ size as well as revenue growth and firms’ value.
During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.
This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of spiritual leadership components on organizational learning capacity for a case study of Payame Noor University, Iran. The proposed study uses a standard questionnaire for measuring spirituality leadership proposed by Fry (2003) [Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The leadership quarterly, 14(6), 693-727.] and for measuring the impact of organizational learning capacity, the proposed study uses another questionnaire proposed by Teo et al. (2006) [Teo, H. H., Wang, X., Wei, K. K., Sia, C. L., & Lee, M. K. (2006). Organizational learning capacity and attitude toward complex technological innovations: an empirical study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), 264-279.]. The results of our survey have indicated that all components of spiritual leadership, except love and altruism as meaningful, influence spirituality leadership, significantly.
In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates the effects of product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix, productivity and quality of marketing mix, people, promotion and education and physical evidence on customer choice. The results of factor analysis have confirmed the impacts of the first four factors but the effects of the other factor were not confirmed. In other words, the results of the survey have indicated that product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix and productivity and quality of marketing mix influence customer choice. However, the other four components including people, promotion, price and physical evidence do not play essential role on customer choice.
This paper performs a social work study on the effect of spiritual intelligence and psychological capital on sense of vitality among elementary school teachers in two regions of city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study uses three standard questionnaires of psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ), Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI-24) and sense of vitality and distributes them among 263 teachers selected, randomly. The results of the survey have been analyzed using Pearson correlation as well as stepwise regression techniques. The results of the Pearson correlation tests have shown that the components of psychological capital questionnaire and spiritual intelligence have meaningful relationship with sense of vitality (P & LT; 0.01). The survey have also confirmed that psychological capital and spiritual intelligence have meaningful effects on teachers’ personal characteristics.